EMP is applied by countries with different levels of development, types of government and cultural traditions. The arrangements and practices that are in place in different countries vary, in some cases substantially, as a result of these factors. A general distinction can be made between the characteristics of EMP systems of developed and developing countries. While those of developing countries are less advanced, the EMP process is similar, with common elements, steps and activities. In addition, the same basic principle for EMP good
practice is applied internationally to both developed and developing countries (EMP Centre, 1995).
For identifying the environmental impact of Matrix Sweaters Limited Descriptive Checklist method has been used.
Impact Predication: The purpose of or impact prediction exercise is “to estimate the extent of changes and to quantify them as far as practicable. Prediction scientifically characterized the cause and effects of impact and its secondary and synergistic consequences for the environment and the local community. Prediction follows an impact due to a project activity and investigates its subsequent effects on the environmental components and aspects such as strain on available infrastructure, adverse impacts on crops, forests, fisheries,
economic effects on fishing villages and resulting socio-cultural changes. For prediction we need to use data on physical, biological, socio-economic and anthropological aspects and resort to experimental/mathematical techniques.
In quantifying impacts it may employ mathematical models, economic models, experiments or expert judgment.
To avoid unnecessary expense, the sophistication of the predication methods to be used should be kept in proportion to the “scope” of EMP. For instance, a complete mathematical model of atmospheric dispersion should not be used if only a small amount of relatively harmless pollutant is emitted. Simpler models are available and are sufficient for the purpose.
All prediction techniques, by their nature, involve some degree of uncertainly. Hence along with quantifying an impact uncertainty of prediction should be mentioned in terms of probabilities of margins of error. It is necessary that social and cultural impacts be given the prominence they deserve in describing the changes expected to result from major development projects. It is the socio-cultural impacts which the local community will feel most acutely in their everyday lives.
Impact Evaluation: The evaluation step in EMP calls for conversion of the predicted values for various environmental parameters to comparable sent of units some system of normalization. Battelle Environmental Evaluation System (BEES) is a useful method of impact evaluation.
The eight guiding published of EMP:
There are eight guiding benefits that given this entire process of EMP and they are as follows:
Transparency: All assessment elements and their basis should be open and accessible. Certainly: The process and timing of the assessment should be agreed in advanced and followed by all participations.
Participation: An appropriate and timely access to the process for all interested parties. Practically: The information and outputs provided by the assessment process are readily usable in decision making and planning.
Flexibility: The assessment process should be able to adapt to deal efficiently with any proposal and decision making situation.
Cost -Effectiveness: The assessment process and its outcome will ensure environmental protection of the least cost to the society.
Credibility: Assessment undertaken with professionally and objectivity.
Accountability: The decision maker are responsible to all parties for their action and decisions under the assessment process.